The study of airborne microorganisms, pollen, spores, and seeds especially as agents of infection.
This umbrella term includes the study of indoor air quality.
Experimental aerobiology depends on equipment and techniques for safe and effective nebulization of the test microbe.
How long such particles remain suspended depends on the combined influence of the nature of the matrix, air turbulence, light, air temperature, and relative humidity.
Air Changes per Hour (ACH)
A metric that tells how many times an HVAC device can fill up the full volume of a room with air.
CDC recommendations: https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/environmental/appendix/air.html
Most air purifiers remove allergens, smoke and VOCs using a mechanical filtration process, without a biological elimination process. Aerobiotix will use the term “purification” since our technology has a mechanical process (HEPA) but is only a part of the whole process.
Coronavirus, the common cold, Influenza, Chickenpox, Mumps, Measles, Whooping cough, Strep Group A and B, MRSA, Tuberculosis (TB), Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Pneumonia, Diphtheria (rare now).
Sources for airborne microorganisms include: humans, pets, plants, plumbing systems, HVAC systems, Mold and resuspension of settled dust (Microbiome, December 2015).
Spread of infections via inhalation of an infectious agent.
Such spread requires that respirable particles carrying infectious agents remain suspended in air long enough to be inhaled by a potential host.
Materials derived from plants (eg, pollen), fungi, bacteria or other biologic and nonbiologic sources capable of causing allergic reactions in a host.
Whereas there are synthetic chemicals such as plastics capable of inducing allergic reactions, the emphasis here is on biologic materials only.
Such particles can contain or consist of bacteria, fungi, organic and inorganic particulates, toxins, and viruses.
CARB (California Air Resources Board)
Tests and certifies various products including air cleaning systems to verify the product does not emit ozone levels that may cause harm.
Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR)
Is a measure of air purifier performance developed by the American Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers. CADR measures the ability of an air purifier to remove tobacco smoke, pollen and dust from a test room.
Aerobiotix doesn’t measure with CADR because this measurement does not have a biological component. CADR does not measure the actual inactivation of airborne bacteria, viruses or fungi. It just measures inert material being captured by purifier filters. Particles can be removed, but viruses can pass right though undetected by the CADR protocol. Our products are air disinfections units, rather than air purifiers.
Colony-Forming Unit (CFU)
Measures the bioload in the air.
Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM)
A measure used in industrial hygiene and ventilation engineering. It describes the rate of flow of air volume into or out of a space. A standard measurement of airflow that indicates how many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute.
Example: in a 15’ x 20’ room with 8’ ceilings, the total room volume is 2400 cubic feet. Assuming guidelines of 2 ACH, the room is receiving approximately 80 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of outdoor air.
In terms of disinfection for air, it is the process of cleaning the air, say with Ultraviolet/HEPA, in order to destroy bacteria, viruses and spores.
Aerobiotix technology disinfects the air as it passes through the Ultraviolet/HEPA unit during the irradication process.
The ability to produce the intended result.
Example: in measuring the effectiveness of ultraviolet light’s ability to eliminate pathogens in the air, it is termed an “efficacy” rate, usually using percentages.
High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)
A HEPA filter is a type of mechanical air filter; it works by forcing air through a fine mesh that traps harmful particles such as pollen, pet dander, dust mites, and tobacco smoke.
Example: a medical grade HEPA filter removes 99.97% of dust, pollen, mold, bacteria and any airborne particles with a size of 0.3 microns. If valuing by MERV ratings, the 99.97% removal rate would be MERV 16.
The testing of products through an organization or company that is not affiliated with a company that created the products. Therefore no commercial bias occurs.
Also called “third party” testing.
Indoor Air Quality
Quality of the air within buildings and other enclosures, with particular reference to the health and comfort of the occupants.
The overall quality of indoor air is dependent on a mix of a variety of factors that may be site and time sensitive.
There are over 40 pathogens with the potential to be an aerosol route of transmission.
The capacity of a microbe to infect a given host depends not only on its biology but also on the general health status of the host and the portal of entry into the host.
A process by which an object is exposed to, for example, Ultraviolet light, to remove and destroy harmful microbes.
The object in this case is the air; the largest surface in indoor environments.
Load and Duration
Can also mean how long it takes for pathogens to be reduced by technology being tested.
Please see “Infectious agent.”
Abbreviated as μm.
Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV)
Developed by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioner Engineers (ASHRAE). MERV values vary from 1 to 16.
The higher the MERV value the more efficient the filter will be in trapping airborne particles.
Standard measurement for Ultraviolet wave lengths.
Example: when testing Aerobiotix technology, outcome refers to the results of reduction of airborne bioload the technology achieves.
Particulate Matter (PM)
Continually in the air where viruses and bacteria will “hitch” a ride.
Even an otherwise innocuous microbe can become pathogenic depending on the general resistance of the host or the microbe’s entry into normally sterile areas of the body where it can become an opportunistic pathogen.
Peer Reviewed Studies/Publications
A peer-reviewed publication is also sometimes referred to as a scholarly publication. The peer-review process subjects an author’s scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field (peers) and is considered necessary to ensure academic scientific quality.
Peer reviewed studies are conducted using the scientific method of testing a hypothesis and documenting the results to reach a valid conclusion. These studies are the most respected types of studies and need to be unbiased to be published.
This reactor suspends biologicals like viruses, bacteria and spores that is in the air passing through. It slows down these pathogens and agitates them while being irradiated. This prolongs exposure time to increase irradiation time.
Often a cause for allergies.
Single Pass Testing
This represents how most filtration occurs in a real world application to achieve the most realistic performance measurements.
Ultraviolet C Radiation (UVC)
Ultraviolet C radiation has wavelengths from 200 to 290 nanometers. Ultraviolet describes light with a wavelength that’s less than visible light, but longer than x-rays. UVC is a germicidal and can be used for disinfection. It works by disrupting the replication process of viruses and destroying the nucleic acid in bacteria.
There are three categories of ultraviolet light wavelengths: UVA, UVB and UVC. UVC is the ultraviolet light wavelength proven to neutralize pathogens. UVC wavelengths are between 200 and 300 nanometers, where 254 nanometers has been proven to be the most effective level of neutralizing pathogens.
Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation
Often used interchangeably with ultraviolet technology; utilizing UVC wavelengths to neutralize pathogens.
Example: bacteria, fungi, spores, mold
A virus is a small collection of genetic code, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat. A virus cannot replicate alone. Viruses must infect cells and use components of the host cell to make copies of themselves. Often, they kill the host cell in the process, and cause damage to the host organism. Researchers estimate that viruses outnumber bacteria by 10 to 1.
Because viruses don’t have the same components as bacteria, they cannot be killed by antibiotics; only antiviral medications or vaccines can eliminate or reduce the severity of viral diseases, including AIDS, COVID-19, measles and smallpox – once they are inside the body. NIH
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
Volatile organic compounds are gases that are emitted into the air from products or processes. Some are harmful by themselves, including some that cause cancer. In addition, they can react with other gases and form other air pollutants after they are in the air.
Indoor sources of VOC include things like paint, carpeting, cleaners, disinfectants, gasoline, tobacco smoke, glues, etc.